!00% Pre Shrunk Cotton T-Shirt depicting A Wild Scottish Thistle with 1745 commemorating the Scottish Jacobite Uprising of 1745 and the brave men who fell in battle.
The Jacobite rising of 1745, often referred to as “The 'Forty-Five“, was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart, and recreate an absolute monarchy in the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term Jacobite comes from the name ‘Jacobe’, which is Latin for James – a popular Christian name among Stuart kings. Charles was the son of the Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart, and grandson of the deposed James II of England. He landed on the shores of Scotland in July 1745 in an attempt to oust King George II and his Hanoverian line from the throne, which had become the birthright of his family in 1603 when King James VI of Scotland had travelled south to become King James I of England and Ireland.
The rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession when most of the British Army was on the European continent. Charles Edward Stuart, commonly known as “Bonnie Prince Charlie” or “the Young Pretender,” sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, where he was supported by a gathering of Highland clansmen. The march south began with an initial victory at Prestonpans near Edinburgh. The Jacobite army, now in bold spirits, marched onwards to Carlisle, over the border in England. When it reached Derby some British divisions were recalled from the Continent and the Jacobite army retreated north to Inverness where the last battle on Scottish soil took place on a nearby moor at Culloden.
The Jacobites were outnumbered around 9000 to 6000, and the ground was too marshy to accommodate the Highlanders’ favourite tactic – the headlong charge into the enemy’s ranks known as the “Highland Charge”. Culloden did, however, lend itself more to Cumberland’s strength in heavy artillery and cavalry. The artillery decimated the clans as they awaited the command to charge. Many clansmen fell simply because the command to charge came too late, as Charles waited for the government troops to advance first, whereas the government troops just kept firing in the light of their highly successful bombardment. When the command did come, the charge itself was disorganised. The Hanoverians stood firm and blasted the Jacobite army into retreat.
The Battle of Culloden ended with the final defeat of the Jacobite cause, and with Charles Edward Stuart fleeing with a price on his head.
His wanderings in the northwest Highlands and Islands of Scotland in the summer months of 1746, before finally sailing to permanent exile in France, have become an era of Scottish History that is steeped in romance.
Most people will tell you The Battle of Culloden was fought by the Scottish clans on the side of Prince Charlie and the British army with the Duke of Cumberland on the other side, Scot’s against the English. This is not quite right. You had clans on both sides, and you had clans that did not come out for either side. Some clans such as Clan Gordon and Clan Grant were represented on both sides.
In the case of Clan Gordon, the chief of Clan Gordon took the side of the English but his brother Lord Lewis Gordon with many from Clan Gordon joined the Jacobite side. Clan Grant of Glenmorriston came out to fight on the Jacobite side, while Clan Grant of Freuchie opposed them on the English side. Clan Rose tried to remain neutral, on 14 April 1746 Hugh Rose of Kilravock, chief of Clan Rose entertained Bonnie Prince Charlie. On 15 April Hugh Rose entertained the Duke of Cumberland. Can’t get more diplomatic than that. The chief of Clan MacQuarrie took no side but did not stop his clansmen from doing so. This also happened with a lot of small clan groups.
Culloden brought about the Act of Proscription 1747 which was actually introduced in 1746 but gave the authorities a year to prise all arms from the “Highland miscreants”. August 1st 1747 was the 'crunch' day for the Highlanders and “…it should not be lawful for any person or persons … to have in his or their custody… broad sword or target, poignard, whinger, or durk, side pistol, gun, or other warlike weapon….no man or boy, within that part of Great Britain called Scotland . . . . will wear or put on the clothes commonly called Highland Clothes (that is to say) the plaid, philibeg, or little kilt, trowse, shoulder belts, or any part whatsoever of what peculiarly belongs to the highland garb; and that no tartan, or party-coloured plaid or stuff shall be used for great coats, or for upper coats . . . .” For transgressing this new Act, which for the first time included Highland dress and tartan in particular, the punishment was six months in prison or, if a second offender, “transportation to any of his Majesty's plantations beyond the seas and there to remain for a space of seven years.”
Artist: Maxine Miller
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